Computer-Generated Materials



Packed Beds


Fibrous Materials

Solid Foams


Fractured Materials



Solid foams are used as catalyst supports, in fuel cells, as heat-transfer devices, and more. Ideal foams (volume fraction approaching zero) have a very specific structure: the basic skeleton can be described using a modified Voronoi diagram, and the additional characteristics (such as the specific geometry of the ligaments) can be overlaid onto this skeleton to create surprisingly accurate models. Because of this correspondence between physical and mathematical structure, solid foams are one of the best candidates for producing realistic computer-generated structures. The images above were generated directly on Voronoi lattices, the geometry of which is not consistent with an equilibrium foam. However, these are good starting structures that can be modified to be consistent with the physics of real foams.


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Cain Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803